The drive motor system is one of the core systems of new energy vehicles, which determines the main performance indicators of the vehicle such as climbing ability, acceleration ability, and maximum vehicle speed, mainly composed of a motor and its controller. The motor is mainly assembled by stator, rotor, and casing, and connector, and other parts. Motors are generally required to have the functions of electric and power generation. Several types of motors such as DC, AC, permanent magnet brushless or switched reluctance can be selected according to the type. Among them, the DC motor has low efficiency, large mass, large volume, and poor reliability, which has gradually been no longer used by the new energy vehicles. A motor is a rotating electromagnetic machine that operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction and is used to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy.
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Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Is the Mainstream of Internal Electric Vehicle Motors
From the perspective of industry support, new energy passenger car drives are based on permanent magnet synchronous motors and supplemented by AC induction motors.
The permanent magnet synchronous motor can still maintain high efficiency during repeated start and stop, acceleration and deceleration, and is the best choice for working conditions with limited high-speed road networks. In the sales structure of new energy vehicles in China, new energy passenger vehicles account for more than 90%. Therefore, due to factors such as drive efficiency and motor volume, most passenger vehicles currently use permanent magnet synchronous motors.
AC asynchronous motors are currently mostly used in passenger cars and commercial vehicles due to their low cost and simple structure.
The advantages of permanent magnet synchronous motors have shifted to the direction of high speed, high torque, and high power. In recent years, with the rapid development of electronic power technology, microelectronic technology, and new motor control theory and rare earth permanent magnet materials, permanent magnet synchronous motors have also Has been quickly promoted.
However, the permanent magnet synchronous motor is impeccable, whose maximum torque is restricted by the demagnetization of the permanent magnet, with the poor anti-vibration ability, the limited speed, and the small power, and the high cost, as well as the difficulty to start.
Some foreign cars use AC induction motors, mainly represented by American car companies headed by Tesla and European companies, which is because of the scarcity of rare earth resources and the consideration of reducing motor costs. The disadvantages of AC induction motors are mainly the small speed range and low efficiency, and higher performance speed governors are required to match performance.
With the rapid development of the new energy vehicle market, the drive motor market has huge potential, attracting the entry of many companies and capital. On the whole, my country's drive motors have made great progress. The domestic drive motor technology is mature and the gap with foreign countries is small, but there is still a certain distance in peak speed, power density, and efficiency.
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Have A Broad Prospect as Domestic Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials Are Abundant
At present, domestic breakthroughs have been made in key common technologies such as high-performance magnetically conductive silicon steel, high-performance rare earth permanent magnet materials, and high-reliability automotive motor position and speed sensors, which has promoted the development of the rare earth permanent magnet synchronous motors at high speed, high torque, and high power in China. Besides, domestic products have been independently developed to meet the needs of various new energy vehicles, and some of the main performance indicators have reached the international advanced level of the same power level.
China is rich in permanent magnet materials, especially the NdFeB, a rare earth permanent magnet material. The reserve of rare earth ore in China known as the "kingdom of rare earth" is about 4 times that of other countries in the world. The scientific research level of rare earth permanent magnet materials and rare earth permanent magnet motors have reached the international advanced level. Therefore, permanent magnet synchronous motors will have a fantastic application prospect in China.
It Is Estimated That the Market of New Energy Vehicle Drive Motors Will Reach 31 Billion Yuan in 2020
As of June 2020, the number of vehicles in China is about 270 million, of which the number of new energy vehicles is 4.17 million, accounting for only 1.5%. At present, the production and sales of new energy vehicles have completed 102,000 and 104,000 respectively.
In December 2019, the installed capacity of the new energy vehicle drive motors in China was 160,662 units, a 44% increase from the previous month. Cumulatively, in 2019, the installed capacity of the new energy vehicle drive motors was more than 1.2 million units.
With the adjustment of energy structure and the strong support of national policies, the new energy vehicle industry is showing a trend of vigorous development. The performance of new energy vehicles is determined by the three major components of power battery, drive motor and motor controller. With the rapid development of the new energy vehicle market in China, the drive motor market has expanded rapidly. The planed issued by the state clearly stated that by 2020, the production and sales of new energy vehicles will exceed 2 million in that year, and the cumulative production and sales will exceed 5 million. Under the vigorous promotion of policies, the proportion of the new energy vehicle market is rising rapidly. It is expected that by 2020, the new energy vehicle drive motor market in China will reach 4.43 billion USD.
BYD Ranks First in Drive Motor Output
From the ranking point of view, the major changes were BAIC BJEV and Volkswagen. The former fell 43.9% from the previous month due to the sharp decline in production and the amount of motor matching. the matching account of electric motors of Volkswagen increased which added the production of Magotan GTE, Passat PHEV, and Tiguan LPHEV, and Tanyue GTE.
The number one motor supplier is still BYD, with a total of 12,340 units, of which 11,675 units are for passenger cars, accounting for 94.6%. The second-ranked Tesla motors all come from Model 3. According to the production data of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, a total of 11,211 domestically-produced Model 3s were produced in April, each equipped with one motor.
With the deepening of the large-scale process of the new energy automobile industry, the requirements for automobile power performance are becoming higher and higher, and the technical advantages of motor companies in the field of motor drive are gradually showing. The leading listed company in the industry chain realized a strong alliance through mergers and acquisitions of new energy motor companies, and squeezed the market through advanced technology. In the future, the share of such third-party suppliers will continue to increase.
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